How Your Brain Works

Licenses and Attributions. The longest axon in the human body is almost two meters long in tall individuals and runs from the big toe to the medulla oblongata of the brain stem. It functions closely with the cerebral cortex and the brain stem. Section of a peripheral nerve results in severe weakness or total paralysis of the muscles it supplies. Neurotransmitters and receptors. In an electrical reaction, the electrical charge of one cell is influenced by the charge an adjacent cell.

The postganglionic fibers either go directly to adjacent viscera and blood vessels or return to spinal nerves by way of other rami communicantes and, in the area of distribution of these nerves, supply the skin with 1 secretory fibers to sweat glands, 2 motor fibers to smooth muscle attached to hair follicles arrectores pilorum , and 3 vasomotor fibers to the blood vessels of the limbs.

In addition to having all the normal components of a cell nucleus, organelles, etc. Related " ". The Interneuron or the Associative neuron is the transfer station or the decision making neuron. This is known as the Bell-Magendie law. Each spinal nerve has a segmental, or dermatomal, distribution. The arrangement of the vertebrae is similar except above 7 cervical and below 4 coccygeal. When the charge enters the axon, the ion channels at the base of the axon allow positively charged ions to enter the axon, changing the electrical balance between inside and outside.

The three basic types of neurons are represented in the Reflex Arc above. Reuptake refers to the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a presynaptic sending neuron after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.

Sensory neurons carry information from the sensory receptor cells throughout the body to the brain. The central nervous system CNS goes through a three-step process when it functions: Dendrites, cell bodies, axons, and synapses are the basic parts of a neuron, but other important structures and materials surround neurons to make them more efficient.

This is the most common type of neuron. Glutamate is considered an excitatory amino acid because Glu receptors in the adult cause depolarization of the postsynaptic cell.

Basic Neuron Types - How Your Brain Works HowStuffWorks

Motor neurons are neurons located in the central nervous system CNS ; they project their axons outside of the CNS to directly or indirectly control muscles. A white, fatty material composed of lipids and lipoproteins that surrounds the axons of nerves and facilitates swift communication. Very small nerves may consist of only one fasciculus derived from the parent nerve.

While the projections from the motor neurons to skeletal muscle go directly to their termination in the muscle, the autonomic motor axons synapse on neurons in a ganglion hence the term preganglionic.

The interior of the cerebellum is composed mainly of white matter, but also contains nuclei of gray matter. The cerebellar cortex, like the cerebral, is composed of a thin rind of gray matter.