Russian Republic. Simon and Schuster. From exile in Switzerland, the Bolshevik leader followed the rapid course of events in Petrograd with frustration.
History of Russia (–) - Wikipedia
When it became clear that the whole process would be marked by corruption and violence, the entire region exploded into rebellion. By Orlando Figes. But it seemed more perilous to back down once more. In January , after several unsuccessful attacks which cost them 60, troops killed and wounded and an eight-month siege, the Japanese captured Port Arthur. Historians have debated whether Russia had the potential to develop a constitutional government between and Then in February , widespread popular demonstrations began in the capital Petrograd as St Petersburg was renamed in This enormous success was significant.
BBC - History - Historic Figures: Nicholas II ()
This prospect was unappealing. Lenin, though, saw that with the Russian Army fast disintegrating, he simply had no choice but to sue for peace with Germany. The Eastern Front , New York , pp. Food and fuel shortages plagued Russia as inflation mounted. Russian military planners had promised their French allies that they would attack Germany shortly after the declaration of war, and they did, crossing the border on 11 August , engaging the enemy in force on 17 August, and winning their first battle at Gumbinnen on 20 August.
Meanwhile, the Kadets held out for a truly responsible ministerial government and equal, universal suffrage. University Press of Kansas. Thus, as the unprecedented pressures of total war created political unrest in all European states and societies, Russia further weakened itself through myopic decision-making.
A political response was inevitable in these conditions. The revolution of , an unprecedented empire-wide social and political upheaval, was set in motion by the violent suppression on January 9 Bloody Sunday in St.
Agricultural difficulties in Russia limited the economy, influencing social reforms and assisting the rise of the Bolshevik party. Trade unions and strikes were legalised, but police retained extensive authority to monitor union activities and to close unions for engaging in illegal political activities.
In early , deteriorating rail transport caused acute food and fuel shortages, which resulted in riots and strikes.
Russian Revolution - HISTORY
The Revolution That Changed Russia. The victory proved to be a partial one, however. Shattering empires.